Carmela Remio

Since in 1996 was called by Claudio Abbado to represent the first time the role of Donna Anna, in the opera Don Giovanni, from Mozart, Carmela Remigio (Pescara 1973) He has played in more than 350 occasions, becoming a reference for this character. From the 19 Debuts in June Liceu Barcelona Donna Anna junto a Marcusz Kwiecien. Before the premiere talks about his career and concerns before this Don Giovanni.

Brío Clásica: After playing more than 350 Sometimes a role, such as Donna Anna in Don Giovanni, How the freshness of the character remains and avoid falling into a rut?

Carmela Remigio: I have to confess, that is a role that never ceases to amaze. Whenever I interpret, meeting new details, because Donna Anna is a very rich role, from both musically and theater. Each note is intended to emphasize the psychological character. Y, Fortunately, I have had the opportunity to learn from great teachers. We can not forget that every night you get on the stage with different colleagues who play Don Giovanni, Don Ottavio, Donna Elvira ..., and relationships and energies are different. Y, Of course, are also different readings of the work from the point of view scenic. All this makes, As much as you interpret that role, never fall into the routine, because it is practically impossible to always do the same Donna Anna.

B.C. How a character is built like this? How is Donna Anna Carmela Remigio of?

C.R. I try to be as faithful as possible to score, both the text and music. So I worry a lot to interpret each and every word accent to stay true to the character. For me, Donna Anna is a young woman, repressing their sensuality and passion for a man to her as fascinating as Don Giovanni, a passion that burns inside and that will not heal in his life. He wants revenge because Don Giovanni has betrayed her with other women and do not know how to survive the pain of having lost a parent and have discovered that the man she feels an inordinate passion, It is not only yours, but also men from other women. He shouts revenge because he can not have Don Giovanni, the love of his life. Donna Anna is a very complex character from the psychological point of view. The women mozartianas, In my opinion, They are one of the best gifts that made us Mozart sopranos, because they are full of wonderful arias that perfectly describe the emotional state, moral and social of all the characters. I think Elvira is a Baroque character, a character more closely linked to the past; instead, Donna Anna represents the future: "Non mi dir" may be the first bel canto aria with recitative, one cantabile that approximates a "Casta Diva" or "Al dolce guidami" of Anna Bolena ... is a final cabaletta with a stratospheric agility ... Mozart, Really, has left us an extraordinary music to discover all these women so different from each other ... a hundred years later this is what will make Verdi with music and Parola…

B.C.:What does having a new character to become part of his repertoire?

C.R. Well, especially, It must be suitable for me from the vocal point of view. Secondly, the voice has to be able to meet the temperament of the character and then everything else develops work, theatrical technique and interpretive Ideas. But as I say, for the election of a new role it is crucial to be vocally appropriate.

B.C.¿Cómo recalls his experience with Claudio Abbado? What did you learn the Italian master?

C.R. For me it was very important because it happened early in my career. A great teacher as Claudio Abbado, I learned what the musical rigor, that is to say, to read music with rigor. He taught me that Mozart should be clear language, transparent, energetic, and the musical language of Mozart is synonymous with rigor ... In addition to Mozart, I also sang Verdi with him and I can confess that his Verdi was equally rigorous. When you look at great directors like him, really learn that above all as the first rule is put at the service of music.
B.C.¿Qué can tell us about high-tech production platforms and stairs impossible presenting Kasper Holten?

C.R. In my opinion, It is a very interesting proposal, because it is very well worked from the point of view theater; There is a great dynamism and a clear psychological differentiation of characters, without falling into bad taste and without transgressing the text. In fact, when you read the script you realize that everything you do makes sense. It is a very elaborate reading. And the staging with the house tour, somehow, It symbolizes a bit this tangle of feelings in the characters.

B.C. Opera is a multidisciplinary art, not enough to have a good instrument. How a career that requires many disciplines master prepares?

C.R. Nowadays, the singer is demanded not only who can sing, but recitare and that its interpretation is credible; the acting interpretation is as important today as vocal. I have not studied to be an actress, but over the years I have observed a lot to my professional colleagues and I have tried to learn noticing theater actors, I often go to the theater and try to learn from all theatrical shows, I also go to the cinema ... In addition, I also learn from the stage directors, I always ask them for advice and talk a lot with them. The fact that I had the opportunity to work with great directors like Peter Brook, David McVicar, Graham Vick, Pier Luigi Pizzi, Robert Wilson, Mario Martone and Damiano Michieletto, among others, It has allowed me to grow and mature as a performer. For me, talk, discuss positive and talk to the stage manager is a good school to learn and grow as a performer.

B.C. You're a very expressive and powerful woman on stage, What does it mean to you sing?

C.R. It's my way of expressing myself emotionally, as a human being. I like to show that emotional part besides the artistic.

B.C. It started in music through the violin, the song came almost by chance. When it was decided to develop an operatic career, What is expected and what is finding?

C.R. The truth is that I had never imagined a life and a career as a singer, but as an instrumentalist because I was studying music ... and if I'm honest, I that's Lyric Theater, initially, I took it as a game ... I did not take it seriously, but then I realized that through song could better explain music ... Actually, we can say, that rather than my choice, It was fate that chose me.

B.B. Why do you think that, in general, so few baroque works are scheduled?

C.R. Well I have no idea ... say, which it is a baroque mystery. To me I love the baroque. I do not know why not show more, but when we do a baroque title always seems to fill the room. There is an audience that loves the baroque and complains that there is hardly Baroque opera houses. I sang Gluck's Alceste in Venice and I remember every night we hung the sign "no entry".

B.C. We miss to hear it again in Madrid, Are you planning some work soon?

C.R. Just after Don Giovanni in Barcelona, I'm going to Madrid to do the Contessa of Le nozze di Figaro at the Summer Festival of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, the days 20 Y 22 of July, and I will be in San Sebastian Musical Fortnight day 13 Y 15 August and December ..., I will sing Verdi's Requiem with the Tenerife Symphony Orchestra under the baton of Michele Mariotti ... also return to the Campoamor Theater in Oviedo to sing Mozart ...


Interview: Paloma Samz

Carmela Remigio

After reaching at the Salzburg Festival last record 400 performances in Don Giovanni, the famous Italian soprano, Carmela Remigio, recently awarded as best singer with the prestigious "Abbiati Prize", debuts at the Gran Teatre del Liceu as Donna Anna, the next 19 of June.

Claudio Abbado chose her personally to give life to Donna Anna in the prestigious edition of Don Giovanni with the Deutsche Grammophon seal. Since then, the soprano born in Pescara, Has made 350 performances on the most prestigious lyrical stages in the world, in the role of Donna Anna and, fifty, as Doña Elvira, in the famous drama playful from Mozart.

The Italian soprano, probably the best Donna Anna of today and the most requested, points: “Anna is one of the most refined Mozartian characters. There is something miraculous in every pulse, as well as the germ of so many other characters in the belcanto. His recitatives and arias are of a perfection and a neatness, that is unmatched in the history of music. They seem to anticipate the melody and phrasing of successive masterpieces such as Anna Bolena, Rule e I puritani. To understand, precisely, in depth to Anna - continues Remigio -, I have also sung the role of Donna Elvira in some productions of Don Giovanni and I'll sing it again at La Fenice in Venice in the fall. They are two very different characters: Elvira is more dramatic, while Anna, instead, is more enigmatic and sinuous. Y, so, they complement, in some way; one is a mirror of the other. "

I was only eighteen, when Pavarotti fell in love with the crystalline color of her voice and became the new winner of her famous “Luciano Pavarotti International Voice Competition” in Philadelphia. Later, Carmela Remigio would accompany him in hundreds of concerts and tours around the world.

Heir to the best Italian vocal tradition, soprano Carmela Remigio has sung in the main theaters, international festivals and concert halls: Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Salzburg Festival, Royal Opera House de Londres, Teatro San Carlo in Naples, the Mint of Bruselas, Teatro Massimo of Palermo, Aix-en-Provence Festival, La Fenice in Venice, Rossini Opera Festival de Pésaro, Carnegie Hall in New York or Royal Albert Hall in London, among others.

Carmela Remigio makes her debut at the Barcelona coliseum, after his recent successes on his return to the Teatro dell ’Opera in Rome, playing for the first time the role of Elisabetta in Maria Stuarda of Donizetti and in the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, in the demanding role of another Mozartian heroine, Elettra (Idomeneo, King of Crete).

In the acclaimed production of Don Giovanni, as firm Kasper Holten, with musical direction by Josep Pons, soprano Carmela Remigio will sing with Mariusz Kwiecen (Don Giovanni), Eric Halfvarson, (The Commendatore), Dmitry Korchak (Don Ottavio), Miah Persson (Donna Elvira) and Simón Orfila (Leporello).


With a program that runs the most exquisite compositions of the nineteenth century, the Gustav Mahler Youth Orchestra Madrid reaches hand Ibermúsica two appointments the next day 20 Y 21 of March. Both concerts are scheduled within the tour celebrating the 30 years of the group and will also for the Palau de la Musica in Barcelona cycle BCN Classics (day 26 of March) and Zaragoza (day 27 of March, audience).

The project began as a dream in the mind of director Claudio Abbado It has become today the most outstanding youth orchestra at the continental level and has 31 Spanish musicians in its ranks, the country that brings more members. Under the baton of Daniel Harding, in his performances in Spain, They will also be accompanied by the extraordinary German baritone Christian Gerhaher.

With three decades behind, la Gustav Mahler Youth Orchestra (GMJO) It is considered the ideal basis for new talent in Europe have their first major orchestral experience. The rigorous selection of the more than two thousand applications received each year, as well as his impeccable artistic work, They have made this group one of the most common at festivals such as Lucerne, Salzburg or the BBC Proms. GMJO debuted at Ibermúsica in 1994 under the orders of Abbado. Since then, public cycle has frequently been enjoying this youth orchestra.

In the first of the performances in Madrid will address Five Pieces for Orchestra, op.16, de Schoenberg, dated work 1909 for this great revolutionary music; Y The summer nights, Berlioz, inspired by a series of poems by Théophile Gautier. It will close the program symphony No.. 2 in C major, op.61, Schumann. The program 21 March includes Altenberg Lieder, from Berg, disciple of Schoenberg; the opera Alfonso and Estrella, from Schubert; Y, by last, the symphony No.5 "Fantastic" according to the composer himself called perceived the whole essence of compositiva Bruckner.


Founded in Vienna in the season 1986/1987 initiative of Claudio Abbado, It is considered one of the leading youth orchestras in the world and was awarded by the European Cultural Foundation 2007. In addition to supporting young musicians in their work, Abbado showed special interest in promoting that young Austrians could touch with his colleagues in the former socialist republics of Czechoslovakia and Hungary. In this way, the group was the first international youth orchestra offered open auditions in the countries of the former Eastern Bloc. In 1992, Orchestra musicians opened up 26 years, from across Europe, with this exceptional share of Spanish.

His repertoire ranges from touring classical music to contemporary, with special emphasis on the great symphonic works of the romantic periods and late romantic. The high artistic level and international recognition of the orchestra have attracted many of the most important conductors and soloists to collaborate with it. In addition to Abbado, David Afkham, Herbert Blomstedt, Pierre Boulez, Myung-Whun Chung, Sir Colin Davis, Christoph Eschenbach, Iván Fischer, Daniele Gatti, Bernard Haitink, Paavo Järvi, Mariss Jansons, Philippe Jordan O Vladimir Jurowski they have led since its founding.

Many former members are now part of the major European orchestras, some of them in positions of their respective solo instruments. In 2012 It was announced a project of intense collaboration with the prestigious Staatskapelle Dresden, It is including concerts and projects with the participation of members of both groups. The Gustav Mahler Youth Orchestra was appointed UNICEF Ambassador in Austria.


Daniel Harding is Chief Conductor of the Symphony Orchestra of Radio Sweden, Principal Guest Conductor of the London Symphony Orchestra, Musical partner of the New Japan Philharmonic and, from the season 2016/2017, He is also Music Director of the Orchester de Paris. He was named Conductor Laureate of the Mahler Chamber Orchestra. further, He is a regular guest to direct some of the most important groups in the world as the Staatskapelle Dresden, La Scala Philharmonic and the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra. It has also been put in charge of the Berliner Philharmoniker, la Munich Philharmonic, National de Lyon, Oslo Philharmonic, the London Philharmonic Orchestra and Stockholm Philharmonic. Among American orchestras he has worked with the New York Philharmonic included, The Philadelphia Orchestra, Los Angeles Philharmonic y la Chicago Symphony Orchestra.

In 2005 He opened the La Scala season, directing a new production Idomeneo. Since then he has returned every season to lead large productions Falstaff, which opened the celebrations Verdi La Scala in 2013. His operatic experience includes Another twist Y Wozzeck, in Covent Garden; Ariadne auf Naxos, Don Giovanni Y Le nozze di Figaro, at the Salzburg Festival with the Vienna Philharmonic.

Among his extensive discography is the symphony No.. 10, Mahler, also with the Viennese group; Carmina Burana, Orff; symphony No.. 6, Mahler; Scenes from Faust, Schumann, con la SO of the Bavarian Radio; Y Billy Budd con la London Symphony (Grammy winner for Best Opera Recording).

In 2002 He was named Chevalier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the French government. Harding was presented for the first time in Spain hand Ibermúsica in 1998, con la Mahler Chamber Orchestra. He has returned several times with that group, and the head of the London Symphony. This is the first time that addresses the GMJO in the cycle Ibermúsica.


Baritone Christian Gerhaher was a student of Paul Kuen and Raimund Grumbach at the Opera School of the Academy of Music in Munich. He studied interpretation lied Friedemann Berger with pianist Gerold Huber and, habitual companion in his recitals. While he completing his medical studies, He perfected his vocal training in master classes given by Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, Elisabeth Schwarzkopf e Inge Borkh. Gerhaher had not returned after his debut Ibermúsica 2009.

In addition to its core business as a concert and recital, often also it addresses the operatic stage. He has received several awards, including the Laurence Olivier Award and the Theater Award "Der Faust". In season 2015/2016 He debuted in the role of Wozzeck, Opera in Zurich, by Andreas Homoki staged and directed by Fabio Luisi. He played the role of Pelleas twice, with the Berliner Philharmoniker and stage director Peter Sellars- and in concert version with the London Symphony Orchestra, both under the direction of Simon Rattle.

Es meaningsta exclusive Sony Music. He recorded, con Gerold Huber, ciclos de Schumann, Schubert and other series of Songs. His most recent live recording, headscarf (BRmedia), It contains songs by Beethoven, Britten and Haydn. He has also recorded solo albums. In 2015 It was released in CD format his second opera recital: Mozart arias, con la free Burger Baroque Orchestra; album that was presented on tour with concerts in Barcelona, Stockholm, Colonia, Vienna and New York, among other cities. His highly acclaimed interpretation of Songs, also with Huber, He has earned him numerous awards. The CD night Violins He won a Classical Music Award 2015, in the category of "vocal Soloist".

National Music Auditorium, Symphony hall, 19.30 hours

duration 115 minutes

musical program

Schoenberg Five Pieces for Orchestra
Berlioz The summer nights

Schumann symphony No.. 2 in C Major, on. 6


National Music Auditorium, Symphony hall, 19.30 hours
duration 115 minutes


Gustav Mahler Youth Orchestra
Daniel Harding, director
Christian Gerhaher, baritone

musical program
Berg Altenberg Lieder
Schubert Two arias from "Alfonso and Estrella"
Bruckner symphony No.. 5

Gustavo Gimeno

The Luxembourg Philharmonic Orchestra and its chief conductor, Valencian Gustavo Gimeno, will perform next 2 November within the 47th season Ibermúsica. In the concert, which will take place in the Auditorio Nacional de Madrid, the orchestra and the young teacher, considered one of the rising figures of the musical direction at European level, They will be accompanied by the violinist Patricia Kopatchinskaja and will perform pieces from some of the brightest Russian composers: Night in Monte Pelado, from Mussorgsky; Violin Concerto, from Chaikovski; Y The Rite of Spring, from Stravinski.

Gimeno - which will also act in Valencia, Zaragoza and Alicante in the days 3, 4 Y 5 of November -, I stood in front of the great Luxembourg formation last season. Before disembarking at this institution, He had been assistant Mariss Jansons in the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, one of the five best teams in the world and worked as assistant Claudio Abbado with Mozart Orchestra, la Lucerne Festival Orchestra y la Mahler Chamber Orchestra. But they have not been the only two figures that have shaped him. In 2013, was assistant Bernard Haitink, again with the Orchestra Mozart Bologna.

further, the outstanding violinist Patricia Kopatchinskaja will address the master Violin Concerto de Chaikovski. Critics have said that it has "something more important than brilliant technique. It's called character”. And that treasures “a formidable talent and boundless energy, permeating the musicians that surround the power of multiple musical possibilities“.

The 47th season Ibermúsica , in which this scheme fits, started last 24 June with the opening concert of the Vienna Philharmonic. Since then, and until May 2017, Programmed Ibermúsica 25 concerts 12 of the best orchestras in the world.


The orchestra of the Grand Duchy, the Luxembourg Philharmonic Orchestra (OPL), It represents a very dynamic part of the culture of their country. Since its debut in 1933 under the auspices of Radio Luxembourg (RTL) and directed by Henri Pensis, the orchestra has been present throughout Europe. Publicly administered from 1996, OPL has been a resident of the Philharmonie Luxembourg, one of the major concert halls of Europe, and both form a single body from 2012. The acoustics of residence has been praised by great orchestras, conductors and soloists from around the world.

Close collaboration with great musical personalities, He has contributed to making the OPL a formation known for the elegance of its sound. His position has been confirmed by an impressive list of awards from twenty recordings in recent years: Grand Prix Charles Cros, BBC Music Choice, and several Diapason d'Or, Shock the World of Music, Pizzicato Supersonic, Classica R10 and many others.

In season 2015/16, Gustavo Gimeno became the eighth music director of the OPL (after Henri Pensis, Carl Melles, Louis de Froment, Leopold Hager, David Shallon, Bramwell Tovey y Emmanuel Krivine). Along with the classic-romantic repertoire, the orchestra program reserves an important place for music of the XX and XXI centuries.


Gimeno (Valencia, 1976) He took office the Luxembourg Philharmonic Orchestra season 2015/16. His international career as a director began in 2012 Assistant working for Mariss Jansons with the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, where he has been percussionist between 2001 Y 2013. It was at the forefront of this powerful training where he made his directorial debut 2014. Likewise, was assistant to Claudio Abbado for years with Mozart Orchestra, Lucerne Festival Orchestra and Mahler Chamber Orchestra. In 2013 also attended Bernard Haitink with Mozart Orchestra. His work alongside these outstanding mentors - to which must be added his training with Ed Spanjaard, Hans Vonk and Ivan Fischer - has had a profound impact on your career direction.

After his outstanding debut with the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra he took over the Münchner Philharmoniker, Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra and Verdi (Milan), Orchestre National de France, Toulouse Capitol National Orchestra, Royal Liverpool Philharmonic, Staatskapelle Dresden, Philharmonia Zurich and Chicago Symphony.

With the Luxembourg Philharmonic Orchestra, It begins its collaboration focusing on the early symphonies of Beethoven, Mahler, Bruckner, Schumann and Shostakovich and directed the Requiem Verdi with the choir of Wiener Singverein. In the contemporary field, He has directed works by Rihm, Berg y Berio. Some of the soloists with whom he worked in his first season at the helm of the Luxembourg group are Isabelle Faust, Frank Peter Zimmermann, Leonidas Kavakos, Anja Harteros y Stefan Dohr.

In spring 2015 She debuted at the Palau de les Arts in Valencia directing Rule Bellini, in a new production of Davide Livermore. Gimeno has worked closely with many composers among those found Theo Loevendie, Jacob ter Veldhuis, Pierre Boulez, Peter Eötvös, George Benjamin and Francisco Coll.


Kopatchinskaja (Chisinau, Moldavia, 1977) descends from a family of musicians. He began playing the violin at age six and has performed with the major orchestras of Europe and the Vienna Philharmonics, Berlin or London. Its versatility is evident in its varied repertoire, It is ranging from the baroque and classicism to commissioned works and new interpretations of modern masterpieces.

In season 2016/17, They include concerts season opening of the new SWR Symphony, with which he has interpreted the Violin Concerto Doremi but Peter Eötvös, under the baton of the composer himself, and a performance with the NDR Orchester Elbphilharmonie in the inaugural concert of the concert hall of the Elbphilharmonie in Hamburg. He has also made his debut with the Rotterdam Philharmonic with Krzysztof Urbanski and Gothenburg Symphony. Among his plans he is to continue their usual collaboration with the London Philharmonic Orchestra, with performances in London and New York with Vladimir Jurowski. More extensively, will perform the Violin Concerto de György Ligeti con la Berliner Philharmoniker y Sir Simon Rattle, the Filarmonica della Scala and Andrés Orozco-Estrada, and the Finnish Radio Symphony Orchestra and Teodor Currentzis.

This season, violinist is also Artist in Residence in three major halls and festivals in Europe: in the Berlin Konzerthaus, Wigmore Hall in London and at the Kissinger Sommer Festival. Also it undertakes several European tours with the Orchestre Philharmonique du Luxembourg, Wiener Symphoniker y Musica Aeterna. As for chamber music, a genre just as important to her, Kopatchinskaja usually acts with artists such as Markus Hinterhäuser, Polina Leschenko, Anthony Romaniuk and Anu effect, in such prominent venues as Berlin Konzerthaus, Wigmore Hall, Vienna Konzerthaus and Amsterdam Concertgebouw.

Prolific recording artist has just released a new album that deals Death and the Maiden de Schubert con la Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra, formation is Artistic Collaborator. He is the winner of Gramophone Award (2013), ECHO Klassic Award and was nominated for a Grammy in 2014 the album dedicated to works for violin and orchestra Béla Bartók Hungarian authors, György Ligeti y Peter Eötvös.

His violin was made by Giovanni Francesco Pressenda in 1834.


National Music Auditorium, Symphony hall

Duration: 100 minutes


Luxembourg Philharmonic

Gustavo Gimeno, conductor

Patricia Kopatchinskaja, fiddle

musical program

Mussorgsky Night in Monte Pelado
Chaikovski Violin Concerto
Stravinski The Rite of Spring


Recent weeks have been marked by significant losses for the world of music. Claudio Abbado obtenía de las orquestas que dirigía una delicadeza casi irreal. Gerard Mortier era maestro en reunir equipos de trabajo para ofrecer resultados asombrosos.

The Royal Theatre premieres 3 April one of the last works of Mortier, Lohengrin from Richard Wagner. We left a text analyzing this work, que relacionó con la anteriormente programada en el Real, Alceste.

Nos hemos permitido seleccionar la maravillosa versión que de la obertura de Lohengrin realizó Claudio Abbado en el Festival de Lucerna, e incorporar el texto sobre esta obra de Gerard Mortier. Una extraordinaria lectura con el mejor de los fondos musicales.
As usual, disfruten.


Gerard Mortier

En el París del siglo XVIII, a mediados de los años 60 y unos 10 años antes de la Revolución francesa, una joven, Pauline R., writes, tras asistir a una representación de Alceste: “Escuché esta nueva obra con gran concentración. De inmediato, la ópera me cautivó y me conmovió de tal manera que caí de rodillas en mi palco y permanecí así hasta el final de la representación”. Es la época en la que Gluck, uno de los compositores más famosos por aquel entonces, festeja su triunfo en París. Sobre todo entre los miembros de la nueva generación. Los mismos que habían leído Werther de Goethe y La joven Eloísa de Rousseau. Era la generación que desarrollaría los ideales burgueses de la Revolución francesa. Gluck se entrega por completo a este movimiento intelectual y escribe un prefacio a Alceste, que fue estrenada en Viena en 1767 Y, in Paris, in 1776, en una versión revisada en profundidad, y que alcanza un enorme éxito. En el prefacio recalca que la música debe volver a su auténtica función: servir a la expresión del drama.

Si en la historia del arte existe desde tiempos inmemoriales la disputa entre “anciens et modernes”, la historia de la ópera se caracteriza además por un permanente movimiento pendular entre la ópera concebida como entretenimiento o como dramma per música. Esta nueva forma artística, que se inspira en la tragedia griega, la desarrollaría Claudio Monterverdi, among others.

En París, esta doble disputa se plasma en aquel momento a través del enfrentamiento entre los piccinnistas, admiradores del belcanto, y los gluckistas, defensores de la tragédie lyrique. Resulta curioso que esta polémica involucrara y dividiera a los enciclopedistas también. De parte de Gluck se sitúan Rousseau y Diderot, de la otra están D’Alembert y el Barón Grimm, en cuya casa vivió Mozart durante su viaje a París, y con el que D’Alembert tampoco se entendió. Mozart conoció entonces, in 1778, la música de Gluck, y está claro que su Idomeneo, que escribió dos años más tarde para la corte de Múnich, muestra su intento por superar el ideal gluckiano. Ifigenia e Illia son hermanas del alma.

“El éxito de Gluck está en estrecha relación con el desarrollo de los ideales burgueses.”

El entusiasmo de las jóvenes mujeres de la época se comprende mejor en el marco de su intento por emanciparse del ambiente rococó, época en la que fueron degradadas a objetos de placer a través de las obras del Marqués de Sade y el Duque de Orléans. Maria Antonieta, hermana del reformista emperador de Austria José II, pertenece a esta nueva generación y es una admiradora de Gluck, con lo que se muestra muy alejada de los intereses de su esposo Luis XVI, lo cual no la salvará de la guillotina.

As it mentioned, el éxito de Gluck está en estrecha relación con el desarrollo de los ideales burgueses, tal como los muestran las pinturas de Jacques-Louis David, Jean-Baptiste Greuze y Jean-Siméon Chardin. Gluck ya había compuesto alrededor de 20 óperas cuando escribió su Orfeo ed Euridice. Que recurra al tema de la primera ópera de Monteverdi no es casual. With Iphigénie en Aulide, Iphigenia in Tauris, Alceste Y Armide, estas cinco óperas constituyen el corpus de su reforma del género artístico apoyado por su libretista Calzabigi, que es quien formula el prefacio de Alceste, que desarrolla el que sería su programa ético y estético, como hicieron Víctor Hugo con Cromwell O Richard Wagner con sus escritos teóricos.

Su éxito en París está más relacionado con esta voluntad de reforma que con la renovación de la expresión musical, para lo cual los parisinos eran más bien algo sordos. Sabemos que Mozart se sintió muy decepcionado en París y, como más tarde haría Wagner, se queja de su incomprensión musical. La innovación musical más importante es el ímpetu de los coros, la sencillez sentimental de las melodías con instrumento obligado como en “Oh malheureuse Iphigénie”, what encontraremos también en la primera frase de la Sonata Claro de luna, Beethoven, y la expresividad dramática de la orquesta en “Divinités du Styx” de Alceste. El que esta radical reforma musical parezca actualmente pálida en ocasiones se debe a la historia de la música que se sitúa en medio: 50 years later, Beethoven compuso la Missa solemnis.

Following the success of Iphigenia in Tauris, Gluck se retiró, por motivos de salud, a Viena, donde transcurrieron los últimos años de su vida, en los que se convirtió en mentor de Salieri. Cuando fallece, Mozart ya había compuesto The Marriage of Figaro Y Don Giovanni, con lo que había determinado la estética de la ópera de los siglos XIX y XX. Pero Gluck anticipó mucho de ello, aunque necesitara a un genio como Mozart para que sus ideas sobre la ópera se transformaran en un súmum del arte lírico.

En el siglo XIX, y dado que Mozart estaba demasiado adelantado para su época, Gluck sigue siendo una figura rectora para todos aquellos que, once again, quieren rescatar la forma artística de la ópera de su función de mero espectáculo de entretenimiento. En primer lugar se sitúa Hector Berlioz, quien compone una maravillosa reelaboración de Alceste que él mismo dirigió. Y ahí encontramos naturalmente a Richard Wagner, quien se inspira en él para sus escritos teóricos sobre la ópera y el drama, y que programó y dirigió Iphigénie en Aulide.

Esto es motivo suficiente para dedicar el tercer proyecto de esta temporada a Alceste de Gluck y Lohengrin Richard Wagner. Ambas óperas, Alceste Y Lohengrin, contradicen el consumismo de la nueva burguesía de un modo brillante, retomando de nuevo la idea del dramma per musica de Claudio Monteverdi con mucho talento, cada una con sus respectivos medios estilísticos tanto musicales como dramáticos.

With Lohengrin, Richard Wagner escribe la primera ópera (well Tannhäuser está en deuda con el mundo, como el propio compositor dice) en la que intenta trasladar sus ideales sobre Ópera y drama a lo musical, lo que supone una auténtica revolución en la historia de la música, y cuya obertura es ya un brillante ejemplo de ello. As Alceste, Lohengrin surge en un importante momento de cambio en Alemania. La idea de la Revolución francesa entusiasmó a la burguesía alemana, como nos cuenta Goethe, pero la degeneración de la revolución en un reino del terror y las guerras imperialistas con las que Napoleón, tras su coronación como emperador, quería conquistar Europa, empujó a muchos a alejarse de ella. Con el Congreso de Viena de 1815, Alemania cayó, como ningún otro territorio europeo, bajo la dominación de la Restauración, y ello hasta 1849.

“Los intelectuales se retiran a un mundo ideal”

Georg Buechner, like no other, denunciará este feudalismo en su obra La muerte de Danton, en la que analiza la Revolución francesa, y en la primera pieza proletaria, Woyzeck.

Alemania es una aglomeración de muchos territorios gobernados por príncipes a partir de privilegios que les permiten explotar desmedidamente a los campesinos. Los intelectuales se retiran a un mundo ideal cuyo modelo se inspira en el storm and stress, Weimar, Schiller y Goethe. Y dibujan un paraíso artístico. Lo que en Francia ha provocado la revolución, se trasnforma en Alemania en sueños idealizados con la Oda a la alegría Schiller, he Götz von Berlichingen Goethe, y la construcción de una filosofía ideal por parte de Hegel. However, surge al mismo tiempo un intercambio fascinante entre Francia y Alemania, cuando los defensores de los ideales burgueses, pero también realistas y católicos convencidos, se distancian del terror de Robespierre y del imperialismo de Napoleón, y buscan refugio en los ideales de Alemania, aunque estos no cristalicen en lo social. Sobre ello dan testimonio Madame de Stael y Chateaubriand, estableciendo las bases del Romanticismo francés, que incluye también, among others, a Victor Hugo, Theophile Gautier y Gerard de Nerval, traductor del Splendor de Goethe al francés. Resulta curioso el hecho de que los románticos alemanes admirados por los franceses fueran denominados “clásicos” por los propios alemanes.

En la época que abarca desde el Congreso de Viena hasta la revolución en Berlín y Dresde de 1848 Y 1849, los intelectuales alemanes desarrollan su idea sobre el significado del “estatus nacional” y el concepto de “pueblo alemán”. Algunas de las personalidades más destacadas en este ámbito son los hermanos Jakob y Wilhelm Grimm, los autores de las recopilaciones de cuentos, what in 1835 publican La mitología alemana en la que Wagner leerá las historias de Tannhäuser y Lohengrin. Junto a otros cinco profesores, los hermanos Grimm pertenecen a la universidad de Gottinga, y todos ellos serán enviados al exilio por el rey Ernst August I de Hannover, por manifestarse a favor de la abolición de la monarquía constitucional que se acaba de instaurar.

Por lo demás, tampoco estas revoluciones triunfan, y eso llevará a la idea del imperialismo alemán bajo la égida de Bismarck, apoyado en la tan exitosa industrialización alemana y que se reafirma con la victoria frente a Napoleón III en 1870. This hybris alemana provocó después la declaración de la Primera Guerra Mundial, que apoyaron todos los intelectuales alemanes de entonces, incluidos Thomas Mann y Arnold Schönberg. Para decirlo brevemente, la frustración que produjo la derrota y los términos de la victoria de los aliados en los Pactos de Versalles fueron el caldo de cultivo del nacionalsocialismo. Este es el negativo de los ideales alemanes de finales del siglo XVIII y principios del siglo XIX. Y un ejemplo prístino de cómo los sueños y utopías se pueden convertir en lo contrario si no se integran de forma concreta en la estructura social. De ello habla Richard Wagner en el Anillo de los nibelungos, desde Niebelheim pasando por el Wallhalla hasta la decadencia del mundo. Y Lohengrin results, precisely, su espléndido preludio.

El exilio de los hermanos Grimm y sus compañeros de la universidad de Gottinga es uno de los muchos acontecimientos que conducen a las llamadas rebeliones en las que Wagner tomará parte en Dresde, lo que le obligará a padecer a él también un exilio durante más de 10 years. Para entonces ya había compuesto Tannhäuser Y Lohengrin, Y, in 1851, Franz Liszt logrará estrenar Lohengrin en Weimar. Este hecho, ampliamente documentado en la extensa correspondencia al respecto entre ambos, le causará un gran pesar a Wagner, que soñaba con asistir a dicho estreno.

“Lohengrin es una obra increíblemente triste”

Esta ópera conquista a toda Europa en un muy breve espacio de tiempo, and even Verdi attend, fascinated and hidden in a box, the premiere in Bologna, directed by his friend Mariani. The reasons are in sight: from a musical point of view, sounds are heard hitherto unknown, both the prelude and the desecration of the gods by Ortrud and narration Grail of Lohengrin, and naturally one of the most complex choruses from Bach with the appearance Swan "ein Wunder, a wonder…". From the dramatic point of view, opera meets all the desires of the bourgeoisie then, Restoration disappointed by Metternich and the "juste milieu" of France; frustrated in his desire for a new world order, convinced of the special place of the artist but also his loneliness (Lohengrin), afflicted by melancholy arising from the frustration of unfulfilled utopia. And all this reflected in oversized forms and also used Meyerbeer, although this will fail to provide them with more than a similar efectismo the current Hollywood productions.

Lohengrin es una obra increíblemente triste, because at first it promises the realization of a new world and end, as Elsa, We abandon us to our loneliness, because society could not find the courage to follow the requirement of the artist, Utopian messenger Grail castle: "No I never interrogate". Elsa wants to know instead of believing, and therefore it can not be released, mientras Lohengrin tiene que regresar a su reino ideal del castillo del Grial solo… como Wagner en el exilio.

Gerard Mortier


A small and simple funeral procession accompanied the Master's 21 January through the streets of Bologna. After, and absolute privacy, era enterrado el que fuera Director de la Scala and the Berlin Philharmonic. Scarcely had flowers, the family wanted that money should go towards those in need.

También a quien más la necesita hizo el Maestro Abbado que llegase la música. La llevó a los hospitales y a las cárceles. Tuvo una dedicación especial con los jóvenes creando la Joven Orquesta Europea one to Orquesta Juvenil Gustav Mahler. Fue el inspirador del Sistema de Orquestas de Venezuela creado por José Antonio Abreu y desarrollado por Gustavo Dudamel. En la Scala de Milán fundó la Orchestra della Scala con la que programó conciertos con entradas especialmente baratas, lo que permitió el acceso al Teatro a un público nuevo que, until that moment, no acudía a la Scala. Consideraba que “la educación musical es, actually, la educación del hombre”.

La semana siguiente a su fallecimiento, Daniel Barenboim, como homenaje al Maestro, dirigió la Orquesta de la Scala interpretando la marcha fúnebre de la Sinfonía “Heróica”, from Beethoven, con la sala vacía y las puertas abiertas…